Audio metering. Measurements, Standards, and Practice

Comprehensive guide about audio metering needed to utilize optional signal levels and produce high-quality audio.

Covering all aspects of this fundamental subject, Audio Metering: Measurements, Standards and Practice begins with the basics, such as audio definitions and digital techniques, and works up to more complex topics like hearing and psychoacoustics.

This revised and expanded third edition includes:

  • Updated information on loudness metering, covering both existing and new standards.
  • Definitions of terms such as LKFS, LUFS, gating, LRA.
  • Explanations of signal types and musical sounds and structures.
  • Further details on immersive audio.
  • Skills needed for both small-room acoustics and large auditorium sound design without loss of sound quality.
  • Descriptions of measurement signals and systems for audio and acoustic sound.
  • A chapter on listening tests from small set-ups to large-scale comparisons of PA/SR-systems.
  • Packed full of valuable information with a wide range of practical applications, this is the essential reference guide to audio metering for technicians, engineers, and tonmeisters, as well as sound designers working with acoustics, electroacoustics, broadcast, studio recording, sound art, archiving, audio forensics, and theatrical and live-audio setups.


Eddy B. Brixen (2020) Audio Metering. Measurements, Standards, and Practice. Third Edition. Routledge, New York



Table of Contents

1 Acoustic Sound
2 From Acoustic Sound to Electrical Signals
3 Digital Representation
4 Signal Types
5 How Large is an Audio Signal
6 The dB Concept
7 The ear, hearing, and level perception
8 Time Weighting
9 Frequency Weighting and Filters
10 Determination of Loudness
11 Characteristics of Level Meters
12 The Standard Volume Indicator (VU Meter)
13 Peak Program Meter (PPM)
14 Loudness Metering
15 Calibration of Level and Loudness Meters
16 Relationships Between Scales
17 Dynamic scales
18 Polarity and phase reading
19 Display of Level Distribution
20 Multi-Channel / Immersive Audio
21 Standards and Practices
22 Summation of Audio Signals
23 Digital interface
24 Audio over IP
25 Where to Connect a Meter
26 FFT, Fast Fourier Transformation
27 Spectrum Analyzer
28 Other Measurement Systems
29 Measurement signals
30 Sound Level Meters
31 NR, NC, PNC, RNC, and RC Curves
32 Room acoustic measures
33 Listening Tests